Oleh: Hamam Burhanuddin
During three decades, the centralistic policy and the tight have been guarding towards rumors capacity to think, discuss and solve the merged problem from the difference openly, rationally and peace-fully.
The story showed, negatively elucidation on the diversity produced the long suffering humankind. At the moment, at least 35 big disputes happened among ethnic groups in the world. More than 38 million souls were expelled from their inhabited place; at least 7 million people were killed in the bloody ethnic conflict.
These disputes happened from the West to East, from the North to South. The world witnessed blood flowing from Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, and Zaire to Rwanda, from second-hand the Soviet Union to Sudan, from Sri Lanka, India to Indonesia. These long conflicts influenced the sentiment of ethic, race, and also religion (Muhaemin el Ma’hady” 2004).
Being many cases, the education world lately begins to cover a new discourse. The brightness of the experts and the educational practitioners indicates that education did not accommodate the students’ culture differences.
The Discourse of Multicultural Education
Multiculturalism etymologically was used during the 1950’s in Canada. According to longer oxford dictionary the term “multiculturalism” is the deviation from words “multicultural” this dictionary cited the sentence from the Canadian newspaper “Montreal Times” the depicted the Montreal community as a “multicultural and multilingual community”.
The discourse of simply multicultural education can be defined as “education of the culture diversity in responding the demographic and cultural change of the certain community’s environment or even the world on the whole”. Multicultural education is the response to the development of the school population diversity, as the demand of the equality of the right for each group.
In the other dimension, multicultural education is the development of the curriculum and the activity of education to enter various views, the history, the achievement and attention of people non Europe (Hilliard, 1991-1992). Whereas, the multicultural education widely included all students without distinguishing his groups like gender, ethnic, the race, the culture, the social strata and the religion.
Identifying the cultural differences
The main aims of multicultural education are democratization and justice factors. To appreciate the different culture, the students have to be able to identify the different culture itself. Therefore, many sides must be paid by student to understand culture.
Firstly, the difference of the ethnic group and language feature, in a class, may the background of the students come from various areas, even in this global era, it is really easy to meet among various cultural sorts (acculturation). Thus, the role of the teacher is clearly necessary to respond these differences.
Secondly, the differences of sex and gender (social construction). These matters are most often encountered in each educational agency, because often color the life of humankind. When education cannot accommodate it, perhaps, education will produce injustice.
Thirdly, the difference of the social status. Each student is already coming from different social status. There are students coming from the family’s well-off circle (they have), and come from the poor family (none they have). Here education must well-off accommodate these two yard kinds.
Fourthly, the difference of the capacity, good physical (diffable) and non-physical. The difference of the physical capacity, popular mentioned by “diffable” becomes the part of the problem of our education this time.
Theses aspects become the important objects in the multicultural educational paradigm. Each teacher has to know those differences in order to be able to apply the humanist model of teaching and learning. Several strategies of conventional learning indeed must be renewed to accommodate the style of the cultural differences.
Promoting a Multicultural Perspective of Teaching
Multicultural education embodies a perspective. Teachers must consider students cultural identities and be aware of their own biases. It is tempting to deny our prejudices and claim that we find all students equally appealing. Teachers and parents need to acknowledge the fact that we like our student, are inevitably influenced by the stereotypes and one-sided view of society that exists in our schools and the media. Not only must we recognize those biases, but also we must change the attitude they represent by accepting all students as we receive them.
One problem with the current thrust in multicultural education is a little or no attention to teach people how to recognize when culturally and racially different groups are being victimized by the racist or biased attitudes of the larger society. In order to change people oppressive ways, we must learn about “oppression such as learning “pedagogy of oppressed” by Paulo Freire.
On the other hand, we must examine our responses to diversity, devoting as much effort to changing them as devoting learning about culture. Nurturing diversity means making multicultural education a process of action, which we as adults achieve clarity about our condition in this society and ways to change it (Phillips, 1988).
Teachers and parents can take several approaches to integrate and develop a multicultural perspective. The promotion of a positive self-concept is essential, as is a focus on activities that highlight the similarities and differences of all students” lives. Student’s play. Particularly role-play is an excellent strategy for developing new perspectives on culture and lifestyles.
The treatment of student as unique individuals, each with something special to contribute, I an important strategy. If a teacher is to understand the whole child, he or she must become aware of the child’s cultural background. Student can benefit from understanding the teacher’s heritage and background. The feeling of connection that results is vital to the child’s acceptance of the similarities and differences of others.
As our country, continues to exhibit great diversity, the need for understanding and accepting the differences among all people has never been more important. Thus, the challenge for teacher I to present an affective multicultural education foundation by means of which all students can learn to accept others.
The goal of multicultural education is not only to teach student about other groups or countries, but also to help student become accustomed to the iedea that there are many lifestyles, languages, cultures, and points of view.
The purpose of multicultural curriculum is to attach positive feelings to multicultural experiences so that each child will feel included and valued and will feel friendly and respectful toward people from other ethnic and cultural groups (Dimidjian, 1989).
One key to help student develop a sense of being citizen by this individual in promoting everyone’s culture will be the successful factor in the child’s development of a multicultural perspective.